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Sample essay topic, essay writing: Afghanistan: Life Under The Taliban - 1498 words

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.. final, with no mechanism for appropriate judicial appeal. Also it has been frequently reported that testimonies and statements of convicts accepting their sentences before they are carried out have been extracted under torture. Some convictions appear to have been based solely on the allegations of the complainants. Taliban Public Executions On 25 February 1998 a stone wall was felled on three men who were convicted, by the Taliban Shari'a court of sodomy with young boys . The stone wall was toppled on them using a battle tank before thousands of spectators at Kotal Morcha north of city of Kandahar. On 30 March 1998, hundreds of people watched an elderly Afghan using a dagger killing an alleged murderer at the southwestern town of Spinboldak close to the Pakistan border .

Mahmood, the alleged murderer, was reportedly arrested about a year ago accused of murdering a young man named Jalil. He was sentenced to death by a Taliban Shari'a court and the order for the execution of the sentence was given by the Taliban leader, Mullah Mohammad Omar. According to reports in the Pakistani newspapers, a Taliban official asked if Jalil's father was willing to forgive Mahmood. When he refused, the Taliban official gave him a large knife and the man slit Mahmood's throat amid chants of religious slogans. Some spectators were reported to have fallen unconscious after seeing the event. Taliban Public AmputationsOn 27 February, three Afghan doctors from the Ministry of Public Health surgically removed the right hands of two men, Hamidullah from Paktiya province and Habibullah from Kapisa province in front of an estimated 20,000 spectators at the Kabul Sports Stadium . The men were alleged to have stolen goods worth 19 million Afghanis ($500) from a Kabul shop

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A Taliban official said they had confessed their offence without any pressure but as in previous cases, this claim has not been confirmed by independent sources. The doctors who had reportedly covered their faces, carried out the amputation after the prisoners were given an anaesthetic, became unconscious and lay on the ground. They cut off the two men's right hands from the wrist with a sharp lance. According to a Reuter report, a Taliban fighter carried one amputated hand around and said: 'Anyone committing theft or adultery will face such punishment. Look at this, it is the hand of one of the thieves.'Public FloggingsOn 27 February 1998, a woman was given 100 lashes for alleged adultery at the Kabul Sports Stadium in front of some 30,000 spectators .

According to Reuters news agency, a Taliban speaker read out the verdict of a Shari'a court, saying that Sohaila, a single woman from Kabul, had confessed to adultery and would be flogged at the stadium. Afghan Woman inder Taliban In 1996 when the Taliban militia took control of most of Afghanistan, women were forced to beg on the streets to simply feed their children because only a tiny percentage of women were allowed to work. Also, girls were banned from attending school after the age of eight and women could not leave their homes unless accompanied by a close male relative. If and when a woman did leave, she must be covered from head to toe with only a small opening to see and breathe through. Medical access is extremely limited because male doctors could not treat women and there are very few female physicians in Afghanistan.

Finally, the Taliban required women to paint their window opaque so that the women inside cannot be seen from the street. There were many severe and even deadly consequences for disobeying the Taliban law. Women and girls in Afghanistan were threatened with violence in every aspect of their lives, both in public and private, in the community and the family. Violence against women in the family including physical abuse and underage marriage is widely reported. Forced and underage marriage also occurred when women and girls were given in marriage as a means of dispute resolution by informal justice mechanisms.

Rape of women and girls by armed groups continues to occur. The prevalence of violence against women and girls constitutes a grave threat to their right to physical and mental integrity. According to Amnesty International's research there was a threat to the right to life of women and girls from violence in the family; women and girls have been killed and driven to suicide while the state has failed to take action. Significant numbers of underage marriages, incidents of physical abuse in the family and other forms of violence were reported to Amnesty International. The vast majority had not been reported to the criminal justice system, and almost none had been subject to investigation or prosecution.

Women were largely unsupported when suffering violence, and had very few means to leave violent situations. Islam and WomanThe Taliban claim to follow a pure, fundamental Islamic ideology, except the oppression they place upon women has no foundation in Islam. Within Islam, women can earn, control and spend their own money; they can also participate in public life. Both the Organizations of the Islamic Conference and the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt have refused to recognize the Taliban as an official government in Afghanistan. Prior to the Taliban seizing control, women led very different lives. Many were educated and employed, 60% of the teachers at Kabul University were women as were 50% of the students. 70% of schoolteachers, 50% of civilian government workers and 40% of doctors were all women .

Through western eyes could there be a more blatant oppression of woman then the chadri (erroneously called a burqa) -- a veil that conceals the even the eyes of its "victims". The situation of woman under the Taliban in Afghanistan was perhaps worse than anyplace in the Middle East (though Saudi Arabia and Yemen are close). However, exaggeration of the Taliban's misdeeds and cruelty allowed them to dismiss all western complaints as based on propaganda. Physicians for Human Rights, who published a harsh report, after they discovered that the Taliban applied their edicts unevenly, and the situation differed drastically from one locale to another. Interestingly, they found that 90 percent of the woman in area of Afghanistan not controlled by the Taliban wore the chadari anyway, and 80 percent of all surveyed Afghan women did not regard the Taliban dress code as an imposition .

Downfall of TalibanOn September 11, 2001 four planes in the United States were hijacked by Islamic terrorists including some who were trained in Afghanistan Taliban controlled territory. Two of the planes crashed into the World Trade Center in Manhattan, New York, one into the Pentagon in Washington D.C., and one crashed into the Pennsylvania countryside. At least 3,000 people are killed. These terrorist attacks have led to major decisions by the United States to conduct operations against terrorists wherever they may reside. Osama bin Laden, the apparent mastermind behind the September 11th incidents.

The United States Military and the Afghan northern front from led a coalition of nations to over throw the Taliban. Today the Taliban is no longer in power in Afghanistan.Conclusion The Taliban rule marked the darkest period of Afghan history. Today, optimism has come back to the Afghanistan people, despite suffering two decades of civil war and languishing under the Taliban regime since September 1996. The Taliban zealots clearly had a distorted image of static Islam of which they forced their obsolete beliefs of living on the Afghan people. As a result of the September 11, 2001 horrible terrorist attack against the United States, the entire global community which was led by the U.S., returned to Afghanistan's rescue and deposed the Taliban.

The cruel, inhuman and degrading Taliban punishments which violated international norms of humanitarian law have come to an end. The free world must realize that humanity cannot afford the blunder of leaving a country such as Afghanistan untouched to be ruled by fanatical rulers. It is the collective responsibility of the global community to learn from this tragedy and never let if happen again.Bibliography"A Bumper Crop". The Economist, October 12,2002"Afghanistan Relives Its Past".Japan Times, July 16,2002"Afghanistan Flagrant Abuse Of The Right To Life And Dignity," in Amnesty International Online Library,01 April 1998;available from http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/ENGASA1100319 98?open&of=ENG-AFG; accessed 08 February 10, 2004."A Job Half Done In Afghanistan".The New York Times, May 15,2003,Baldauf, Scott. and Tohid, Owais."Taliban Appears to be regrouped and well funded".

Christian Science Monitor, May 8,2003, Baldauf, Scott. and Tohid, Owais." Where taliban go to find warm beds and results". Christian Science Monitor, December 11,2003, Black, Andrew."Talibans Rise Was Fueled By International Community".The Press Association Limited, September 30, 2003Goodson, P. Larry. Afghanistans endless war.United States of America:Univeristy of Washington Press, 2001.Hilton, Elizabeth."Just Poppycock".The Guardian, December 11, 2003"How The Taliban Erased History; One Year After Taliban Forces Savaged Afghanistan's Two Celebrated Buddahs, The Story Of Their Destruction Has Emerged".

Washington Post.March 16,2002Kramer, Martin."The Camera and The Burqa".Middle East Quarterly, March 1,2002Nojumi, Neamatollah.The rise of the taliban in afghanistan.New York,NY:Palgrave, 2002. "Taliban Comeback in Afghanistan". Mideast Mirror October 10, 2003Tompkins,Richard. "Analysis:Afghanistan 2 years later." United Press International, September 14, 2003,p8.

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